Saturday, May 23, 2020

Essay on Albert Cohens Theory - 1123 Words

According to Siegel (2013) Albert Cohen developed the theory of delinquent subcultures in his classic 1995 book, Delinquent Boys. Cohen believes that the delinquent behavior of lower class youth actually goes against the norms and values of middle-class U. S. culture. These youths experience what he calls status frustration due to social conditions that enable them to achieve success legitimately. As a result of this social conflict the youths join gangs and become involved in behavior that is â€Å"nonutilitarian, malicious, and negativistic. This gang subculture possesses a value system directly opposed to that of the larger society. Their norms of society are completely opposite. Their conduct is right by the standards of their subculture†¦show more content†¦The corner boy is the most common response. They are not chronically delinquent but may be involved in petty or status offenses. He is loyal to his peers and eventually becomes a stable member of his neighborhood. The college boy embraces the cultural and social values of the middle class and strives to be successful by these standards. These youths are on an almost hopeless path because they are ill-equipped academically, socially, and linguistically to achieve the rewards of middle class life. The delinquent boy adopts a set of norms and principles in direct opposition to middle class values. They live for the day and do not think about tomorrow. They go against efforts made by family, school, or other sources of authority to control their behavior. The attraction, loyalty, and solidarity are some of the reasons they join gangs along with the gangs perception of autonomy and independence. Reaction formation is the result of the delinquent boy’s inability to succeed. The real problem for Cohen is status frustration, not blocked opportunity (Siegel, 2013). Lower-class youth desire approval and status, but because they cannot meet middle-class criteria, they become frustrated (Criminolo gy chapter 4 outline They overreact to any perceived threat or slight. They are also willing to take risk, violate the law, and flout middle-class conventions. Cohen’s work explains the factors that promote and sustain aShow MoreRelatedAlbert Cohen And The Chemical Warfare Service868 Words   |  4 PagesAlbert Cohen, born in Boston in 1918, where he spent the overwhelming majority of his life in academia. In 1939, he completed his undergraduate studies at Harvard, where he was greatly influenced by his professors, most importantly Merton at Harvard, and Sutherland at Indiana. He chose to leave the New England area for graduate school. Cohen attended Indiana University where he completed his sociology graduate degree in 1942, during a tenuous time for the nation and the world, was gripped in warRead MoreTheory of Delinquency1458 Words   |  6 PagesTheory of delinquency Deviant sub-cultural theories of crime focus on subcultures, i.e. groups within wider society with norms, lifestyles and values distinct from those of mainstream society. The focus in sub-cultural theories is on delinquency. In the UK, a preoccupation with the idea that future crime was determined by juvenile delinquency came about as a result of the 1895 UK Gladstone Committee, wherein research focused on gang culture among young males (aged 16-25). Deviance is perceivedRead MoreAlbert Cohens Meaning Of Delinquent Subcultures1463 Words   |  6 PagesAlbert Cohen’s work on delinquent subcultures was influenced by Robert Merton and Edwin Sutherland as he was student of both. Cohen draws on Merton’s strain theory as an underlying theory to develop his understanding on delinquent subculture within inner city neighborhoods. Cohen’s text Delinquent Boys: The Culture of the Gang (1955) was first of the subcultural theories of crime aimed at explaining the emergency of delinquent subculture and how one can get to the root of the issue. According toRead MoreAnalysis Of The Lost Boyz1048 Words   |  5 Pagesfor purpose in a world filled with racism and violence. In his book â€Å"The Lost Boyz† he tells us the crucial events which occurred throughout his upbringing which shaped his journey through his teenage years. This essay will critically evaluate the theories and explanations for Rollins’ offend ing behaviour using a wide range of criminological perspectives. Psychological positivist John Bowlby considered the effect of maternal deprivation as a cause of crime. He stated that children require consistentRead MoreYouth Deviance Essay1376 Words   |  6 PagesCritically examine the theory of deviance with reference to young people and their membership in deviant subcultures or gangs. Deviance is associated with young people today and is rapidly on the increase within the street and school environment. Young deviants are engaging in gang membership and subcultures with a means of social belonging, social interest and ethnic identity. There are several sociological and subcultural theories which deem to explain deviance. Some of the theories are functionalistRead MoreTheory Paper Based on Boyz N the Hood1007 Words   |  5 Pagesblockbuster. The film incorporates numerous criminological theories and also demonstrates the concepts of conformity and deviance. This paper will analyze the characters of Tre, Ricky, Doughboy, Furious and other friends and family and show how criminological theories and the concepts of conformity and deviance play a part in their lives. The Learning Approach/ Social Learning Theory Edwin Sutherland’s theory of Differential Association theory is about an individual learning criminal behaviour throughRead MoreBiological Determinism, Subculture Crime And Conflict Theories1652 Words   |  7 PagesThe theories that will be looked at in order to provide a sufficient report for the judge on what caused Albert to enter a life of crime which culminated in his conviction for murder are; biological determinism, ecological determinism, subculture crime and conflict theories. Biological determinism One of the best known application of biological determinism in relation to crime is from Cesare Lombroso who â€Å"Viewed criminals as suffering from a depravity caused by an atavistic reversion:† In otherRead MoreFlorencia Girls Case Study1028 Words   |  5 Pagesfurther understand the emergence of these adolescent members. This paper will also focus on using Walter Millers Cultural Deviance Theory, and his six focal concerns (toughness, getting into trouble, smartness, fate, excitement, and autonomy), to help understand and explain the behavior of these adolescent members. Lastly, we will use Albert Cohens Subcultural Theory, to describe how members of the Florencia gang gain respect through the Lower Class Value System, as opposed to following Middle ClassRead MoreCrime and Deviance4103 Words   |  17 Pagescovering Merton’s limitations Albert Cohen’s subcultural theory was introduced, his theory only focuses on how educational failure played a major par t in working class crime as gang delinquency. Cloward and Ohlin criticised Cohen that he did not cover all of Merton’s limitations; hence, Cloward and Ohlin explained the three different types of deviance. The strengths and limitations of the four theories will be highlighted. Marxists criticism of functionalist theory and the similarities and differencesRead More The Existence of Crime Culture Among Certain Social Groups Essay3545 Words   |  15 PagesAlbert Cohen’s thesis is that class based status frustration is the origin of subcultures. Crime culture existed in certain social groups and the individuals learned the value of the delinquent subculture through participation in gangs. Delinquent subcultures have values that are in opposition to those of the dominant culture. The strain is rooted by low economical conditions, poor parental relations, and low school standards, with no chance of succeeding in the future. The anti social structure

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

A Day Of Honor At The Table - 1537 Words

We are in Luke 14 today. One Sabbath, when Jesus went to eat in the house of a prominent Pharisee, he was being carefully watched. There in front of him was a man suffering from dropsy. Jesus asked the Pharisees and experts in the law, â€Å"Is it lawful to heal on the Sabbath or not?† But they remained silent. So taking hold of the man, he healed him and sent him away. Then he asked them, â€Å"If one of you has a son or an ox that falls into a well on the Sabbath day, will you not immediately pull him out?† And they had nothing to say. When he noticed how the guests picked the places of honor at the table, he told them this parable: â€Å"When someone invites you to a wedding feast, do not take the place of honor, for a person more distinguished†¦show more content†¦Please excuse me.’ â€Å"Another said, ‘I have just bought five yoke of oxen, and I’m on my way to try them out. Please excuse me.’ â€Å"Still another said, ‘I just got married, so I can’t come.’ â€Å"The servant came back and reported this to his master. Then the owner of the house became angry and ordered his servant, ‘Go out quickly into the streets and alleys of the town and bring in the poor, the crippled, the blind and the lame.’ â€Å"‘Sir,’ the servant said, ‘what you ordered has been done, but there is still room.’ â€Å"Then the master told his servant, ‘Go out to the roads and country lanes and make them come in, so that my house will be full. I tell you, not one of those men who were invited will get a taste of my banquet.’† Luke 14:1-24 I want to go back to the beginning, did you see how it began? This story of a great feast comes out of the story of a man who was ill. Jesus wants to heal him. But there is a rule. You don’t work on the Sabbath. To perform a miracle would mean breaking the rules. Have you been counting? How many times have we seen this same scenario? I want to be clear, Jesus is not sinful, but He breaks the rules. He conforms to only one expectation, God’s, never to man’s. He breaks all our rules of society– He hangs out with all the wrong people. He seems to care little for money, except what you do with it. He doesn’t occupy His time with building houses, working jobs, harvesting food, or looking for a wife. He is focused onShow MoreRelatedCharacteristics Of King Arthur880 Words   |  4 Pagessuch as Arthur’s allegiance to the Knights of the Round table, his companion Merlin, his relationships with his fellow knights, family, and close fri ends, and the legendary sword Excalibur. When all aforementioned qualities are explained and put together, it can truthfully define Arthur as an epic hero. The legend of the Knights of the Round Table is one of the utmost sources explaining Arthur’s heroic qualities. The Knights of the Round table was an organization that served the king directly butRead MoreAnalyzing Titus 1 A Pastoral Epistle Written By Apostle Paul1741 Words   |  7 PagesTitus1:1, the Apostle Paul opens this letter to Titus with an unique salutation reaffirming that God has called him (Paul) to advance the Kingdom of God by serving as an Apostle to lead all those who believe by Faith in His name, unto salvation (see Table 1). He has been called to establish the order and structure that God has ordained from the beginning of time. The Apostle Paul has witnessed the rampant destructive types of character as exhibited by the Cretans. â€Å"Crete had a reputation for violenceRead MoreArchetypes In Sir Gawain And The Green Knight829 Words   |  4 Pagesobjects served to aid in the development of the hero by being either a situational, character, color, or a symbol archetype. The poem begins with a challenge being presented to the knights of the Round Table by the Green Knight. While seeing that no one else will accept the challenge, putting Camelot’s honor at stake, Gawain accepts and then realizes that in a year they must meet again and the Green Knight will return the blow that Gawain gave to him. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight dramatically demonstratesRead MoreChin Chinese New Year1268 Words   |  6 PagesElyeth Buchanan Music 009 Dr. Howard 2/23/16 Chinese New Year The Chinese New Year, or the â€Å"Lunar New Year† as it’s called on other Asia countries, is a very important celebration in China. The Chinese New Year is the fifteenth day of the lunisolar calendar; this calendar method is based on the moons orbiting around the earth, while our calendar is based on the earth orbiting around the sun. The Lunar New Year falls on the first new moon between January twenty first and February twentieth . ItRead MorePresentation Of A Banquet Server1264 Words   |  6 PagesIt has been one year since I started to be a banquet server. The experience of working as a banquet server has helped me to appreciate people hard work around the tables serving their clients without complaining their exhaustion. According to Christa Titus, the author of â€Å"The Definition of a Banquet Server,† â€Å"A banquet server is a person who serves food and beverages to guests at an event.† The servers work at many special events such as graduat ion ceremony or wedding feast. Some of their dutiesRead MoreSir Lancelot And King Arthur1544 Words   |  7 PagesHonor. Honor, known as the chivalric code initially from the Catholic military rankings of the Crusades, corresponding with medieval notions of morals of chivalry. This concept is the main theme in the novel Le’Morte de Arthur by Thomas Malory. In Le’Morte de Arthur, King Arthur discovers the betrayal of his wife Guinevere, and his best knight Sir Lancelot. However, although King Arthur is married to Guinevere he feels the most betrayal by his best knight Sir Lancelot and is pained over his dishonorRead MoreHeroes in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight by Joseph Campbell Essay619 Words   |  3 Pagesthe Green Knight enters the castle and requests a challenge, and no one but King Arthur will accept it. Then, Sir Gawain says, I beseech you uncle, to grant me a kindness. Let this contest be mine. Gentle lord, give me permission to leave this table and stand in your place there (Ponsor 127). Gawain believes that he is the least brave knight in the court and should take the blame if he fails so that it does not rest on the court since it is such a foolish challenge in the first place. So ArthurRead More Analysis Of Sir Gawains Character Essay1100 Words   |  5 PagesAnalysis Of Sir Gawains Character In Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, the character of Sir Gawain, nephew of the famed Arthur of the Round Table, is seen as the most noble of knights who is the epitome of chivalry, yet he is also susceptible to mistakes. His courtesy, honor, honesty, and courage are subjected to various tests, posed by the wicked Morgan le Fay. Some tests prove his character and the chivalrous code true and faultless, like the time he answers a challenge although it might meanRead MoreJason Mack. Ms. Davis. English I. 24 April 2017. The Honor896 Words   |  4 PagesJason Mack Ms. Davis English I 24 April 2017 The Honor of Sir Galahad The knights of King Arthur’s time were not only brave, but they were righteous, gallant, and faithful. In King Arthur’s time, chivalry was everything. Knights were expected to do battle, be religious, and be respectful to women. One such knight was Sir Galahad. He was the son of Lancelot and Elaine of Corbenic and became a knight at King Arthur’s Round Table. The story of Sir Galahad was shared in The Quest of the Holy Grail fromRead MoreBeowulf Vs. Sir Gawain879 Words   |  4 Pagespredominately on his ability to conduct himself with chivalry and honor at all times. The vast distinctions observed in those ideals that constituted heroism in Beowulf and Sir Gawain and the Green Knight are largely established by the broad expanse of time and location between their periods of conception. In a time of early Norse culture, the impetuous and prideful character of Beowulf presents a quintessential hero for the current day and age. Though often brash and conceited in speech and manner:

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

The Italian Renaissance - 870 Words

During the 14th century, Italy was divided into many self-governing city sates. Florence, an independent republic and third largest city in Europe at the time, was the motherland of the Italian Renaissance. This was an enlightening time of â€Å"rebirth† that began directly after the Middle Ages ( Staff). Florence was the birthplace of the Renaissance due to its location, prosperity, and cultural amalgamation. WHY IS ITS LOCATION SO SPECIAL - why not somewhere else? Italy consisted of communes, or city-states, ruled by an individual or a solitary family, with a democratic government and an abundant amount of educated citizens. The governmental system was not a true democracy, however, since only wealthy men were allowed to vote. As time progressed though, the common people began to have more governmental power, due to emerging social and economic freedoms. There were three main social levels at that time: the upper class, being businessmen and merchants, the middle class, formed from educated townsfolk, and the lower class, comprised of artisans and craftsmen (Walker 7-8). Because of its location, Florence was home to many wealthy citizens. Florence became the cultural capital of Europe due to aristocrats exhibiting their prominence by supporting artists and philosophers who studied ancient Greece and Rome ( Staff). Italians considered their rebirth to be both an emergence from the dearth of culture in the Dark Ages and a new beginning altogether, builtShow MoreRelatedThe Italian Renaissance And The Renaissance1424 Words   |  6 PagesThe Italian Renaissance was an explosion of art, writing, and thought, that roughly lasted between 1300 to 1600. In this time each citizen, countrymen, or villager had and performed different jobs and careers. Humanism the study of Greek and Roman writings, art, and architecture, initially jump started the Renaissance, and the need for art. Artists now were inspired to use life like art and linear perspective, so art seemed and was more realistic. The start of the Italian Renaissance was theRead MoreThe I talian Renaissance And The Renaissance1158 Words   |  5 PagesThe Renaissance period is known for the revival of the classical art and intellect born in ancient Greece and Rome. The Renaissance is also a time that is marked by growth, exploration, and rebirth. The Italian Renaissance started in Florence and progressively made its way into Venice and then into the great city of Rome. During the Renaissance, Rome was home to some of the renowned works of art and the finest architectural masterpieces in the world - too many that still holds true today. Along withRead MoreImpact Of The Italian Renaissance1387 Words   |  6 Pagesdisappearance of the Roman Empire, the Italian Renaissance was introduced to the European culture. The Italian Renaissance was the revival of the Greek and Roman cultures in forms of art, education, and literature. The Renaissance originally began in Florence, Italy during the time of 14 A.D and eventually began to expand throughout western and northern Eur ope in 15 A.D. The rebirthing of these ancient cultures brought much awareness and knowledge to the Italian society and resulted in change in theirRead MoreCharacteristics Of The Italian Renaissance1299 Words   |  6 Pagesof the Italian Renaissance Renaissance means rebirth in the French language, the renaissance happened between the fifteenth century and sixteenth century. Beginning in Italy, the Renaissance was an era that rediscovered the culture of ancient Greece and Rome in the fourteenth century and witnessed a continuation of the economic, political, and social trends. Jacob Burck-hardt, a swiss historian and art critic, created the Renaissance in his celebrated book The Civilization of the Renaissance in ItalyRead More the arts in Italian Renaissance Essay1647 Words   |  7 Pages The Italian Renaissance was a very difficult time period in European history. The arts were flourishing, while the city-states in Italy fought bloody battles with each other and within themselves. Bribery and murder were not uncommon tools for men to use when they wanted power. Meanwhile those same rulers patronized the arts a great deal and they would commission the best artistic minds of the time to build, design and paint their palaces and churches and later on their own portraits andRead MoreCompare and Contrast the Northern and Italian Renaissance807 Words   |  4 PagesItalian High Renaissance artists achieved ideal of harmony and balance comparable with the works of ancient Greece or Rome. Renaissance Classicism was a form of art that removed the extraneous detail and showed the world as it was. Forms, colors and proportions, light and shade effects, spatial harmony, composition, perspective, anatomy - all are handled with total control and a level of accomplishment for which there are no real precedents. Leonardo da Vinci was a Florentine artist, one of theRead MoreEssay about Italian and Northern European Renaissance758 Words   |  4 PagesItalian and Northern European Renaissance The Italian and Northern Europe Renaissances were both an important mark in history by changing the ideals of life, thought, culture, and art of the people’s of this time. In this paper I will explain the motive for change in these cultures, including the similarities and differences of the two cultures. The Italian and Northern European Renaissance was the marking point for leaving behind the old ways and moving into the more classicalRead MoreThe Act of Sodomy in Florence during the Italian Renaissance1839 Words   |  7 PagesThe Act of Sodomy in Florence During the Italian Renaissance During the Italian Renaissance, the sexual environment of fifteenth-century Florentine society is described as Florentine men partaking in some kind of same-sex experience. These same-sex acts were not just wrong doings, but a fundamental part of Florentine masculine identity. More specifically I will focus on sodomy, the act of anal or oral sex, which can be heterosexual or homosexual. What I will be analyzing in this paper is the termRead MoreIndependent Women Courtesans in the Italian Renaissance Essay2465 Words   |  10 PagesIndependent Women Courtesans in the Italian Renaissance Prostitution is normally thought of as anyone who sells his or her body for money. In this century, no distinction is put on the class level of the prostitute or on how much or how little he or she earns, they are still considered just a common prostitute. This was not true of 16th century Italy, though. In this age, prostitution was a legal business and class lines were of great importance. At the top of this list were the honestRead MoreThe Annunciation Explored through the Era of Italian Renaissance2314 Words   |  10 PagesChristian iconography. This essay will explore the depiction of the Annunciation and symbolism in the period of the Italian Renaissance and pay particular attention towards the development of the focus on spiritualism towards naturalism through the refined language of expression and gesture from the 14th century to the late 15th century. As a student of Duccio di Buoninsegna who was an Italian artist and actively worked in the city of Siena, Tuscany, Simone Martinis most famous painting The Annunciation

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Social Development During The Early Childhood Years

This purpose of this study, done in Pakistan, was to identify social development in the early childhood years. One hundred and forty, random selected, boys and girls from Lahore City were used in this study. Fifteen was randomly chosen from each of eight private schools between the ages of 3 and 8. They were divided into three groups; 3 to 4 year olds, 4 to 6 year olds and 6 to 8 year olds. A checklist was developed to help collect data about children’s social development, consisting of 53 questions and two columns of yes or no, for opinions of teachers, by three experts in childhood education. The checklist covered areas of development consisting of individual characteristics, social skills, communication skills and peer relationships. One of the experts visited each of the schools and explained to the teachers how to observe the children. After one week the observational sheets were collected. Percentages computed identify various patterns in the data to reach certain conclu sions. The results in the 3 to 4 year olds were: 60% do not usually show a positive mood for the whole day; positive relationships with peers is shown in 75%; when reminded 30% say thank you; 65 percent interact in non-verbal ways with peers such as a nod or a smile, and engage in games with adults; 60% showed interaction and exchange of information with peers; 68% participated in classroom group activities; 75% feel embarrassed when someone talks about their words or habits to someone else; 63% showedShow MoreRelatedEducating Children With Essential Cognitive Development757 Words   |  4 PagesCurriculums Fostering Social Development Early childhood education programs provide children with essential cognitive development. These programs also foster social development. Children can learn the social rules for interacting with other children; for example, how to share their toys. Erikson’s theory is different from Piaget’s theory. â€Å"Erikson’s view is that the social environment combined with biological maturation provides each individual with a set of ‘crises’ that must be resolved† (HuittRead MoreChildhood Development Essay946 Words   |  4 PagesChildhood begins a new era of development, one that is filled with exploration and a new understanding of the world. Children are finally beginning to understand aspects of their environment that they were unable to comprehend during infancy. While development during childhood occurs less rapidly than that which is experienced during infancy, there are still many major changes that children go through during this time. During childhood, children experience physical and cognitive growth, create newRead MoreThe Importance of Friendship and Healthy Relationships in a Childs Development976 Words   |  4 Pagesimportant in my opinion. We see how friendships play important roles throughout our life span. Friendships are defined and formed in each stage of life from infancy. These include early childhood, middle childhood, adolescence, early adulthood, middle adulthood and late adulthood. Friendships grow from one stage to another. During this time friends become closer. Relationships start out as acquaintances and may stay like that for a period of time. An acquaintance is someone you know in passing. You mayRead MoreChallenges Of Children Face When They Start School1703 Words   |  7 PagesWhat are the challenges that children face when they start school? Transition from early childhood to middle childhood involves many milestones in a child’s life, but none quite as significant for both parent and child as when it is time to start fulltime school. Even when a child has been attending pre-school nursery, private nursery, a childminder, or nanny, it is still a major event in any parent and child’s relationship, and as such can cause a lot of anxiety for either or both child and parentRead MoreChildhood Development And Childhood Stages1633 Words   |  7 PagesChildhood, is a period characterised by significant cognitive, emotional, social and biological development. This discussion will consider the significant aspects of childhood development and experiences that contribute to children’s longer-term well-being, however, its primary focus will be socio-emotional development. Longer-term well-being refers to physical, social and emotional health over a continuous period of time. However, it is important to consider that this a relatively broad definitionRead MoreInfancy and Early Childhood1150 Words   |  5 PagesInfancy and Early Childhood Development Paper Beverly Mahone PSY/375 July 11, 2011 Andrew Rodriguez Infancy and Early Childhood Development Paper The immature years of life and the stage in which the most development occurs in a child are referred to as infancy and early childhood. In this paper the subject will explain development during infancy and early childhood, explain how families affect the development of infants and young children, evaluate different parenting styles andRead MoreThe Impact Of Sensory Processing Disorder On Development And Development1500 Words   |  6 Pagesdivided into eight different developmental periods. This essay will focus on the early childhood period that ranges from two to five or six years of age. Firstly, this essay will describe the typical developmental milestones during early childhood and how they play an important role in each developmental stage that follows. Secondly, it will analyse how the home and educational environments influence early childhood. Finally, it will define Auditory Processing Disorder and the characteristics ofRead MoreEssay on The Play Years755 Words   |  4 Pages The Play Years nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Early childhood is often characterized by endless make-believe and sociodramatic play which indicates the development of mental representation. Sociodramtic play differs from simple make-believe play in that it involves play with peers. This stage of play is often referred to as the Preoperational Stage. This is the stage immediately after Piagets Sensorimotor Stage. The Preoperational Stage spans from two to about five or six years of age. At thisRead MorePersonal Human Growth And Development Timeline944 Words   |  4 Pages Personal Human growth and development timeline Going through this class and learning about each of the different phases was interesting. To go through and see which ones I have personally experienced. When we started to get in late adulthood it was slightly depressing thinking about growing old and the factor of death. Each part of our development we go through will mater when we reach that point in our lives if you think about it in that context. That’s why it is important to know yourRead MoreSample Undergraduate Psychology Essay1591 Words   |  7 PagesRelationship between early years experiences and criminality. Psychological theories have attempted to explain the reasons for and how criminality occurs. The psychoanalytic perspective involves two major theories - Freuds theory of the Sexual Stages of Development and the Theory of Attachment purposed by Bowlby (1947). These theories conclude that there is an association between the formation of personality in childhood and that of future criminal behaviour. The Freudian theory of development suggests that

Social Responsibility Free Essays

Presentation Transcript Core Concepts of ManagementSchermerhorn : Schermerhorn – Chapter 4 1 Core Concepts of ManagementSchermerhorn Prepared by Cheryl Wyrick California State Polytechnic University Pomona John Wiley Sons, Inc COPYRIGHT : Schermerhorn – Chapter 4 2 COPYRIGHT Copyright 2003  © John Wiley Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that named in Section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the express written consent of the copyright owner is unlawful. We will write a custom essay sample on Social Responsibility or any similar topic only for you Order Now Request for further information should be addressed to the Permission Department, John Wiley Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her owner use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, cause by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein. Chapter 4Ethical Behavior and Social Responsibility : Schermerhorn – Chapter 4 3 Chapter 4Ethical Behavior and Social Responsibility Planning Ahead What is ethical behavior? How do ethical dilemmas complicate the workplace? How can high ethical standards be maintained? What is corporate social responsibility? What is Ethical Behavior? Schermerhorn – Chapter 4 4 Ethical behavior what is accepted as â€Å"good† and â€Å"right† in the context of the governing moral code Values broad beliefs about what is or is not appropriate behavior What is Ethical Behavior? What is Ethical Behavior? : Schermerhorn – Chapter 4 5 What is Ethical Behavior? Examples of Values Equality Fairness Honesty Responsi bility Harmony JCAHO Standards : JCAHO Standards RI 2. 10 The hospital respects the rights of patients: Elements of Performance 2. Each patient has the right to have his or her cultural, psychosocial, spiritual and personal values, beliefs and preferences respected 4. The hospital accommodates the right to pastoral and other spirituals services for patients. RI 2. 220 (LTC only) Residents receive care that respects their personal values, beliefs, cultural and spiritual preferences, and life-long patterns of living Slide 7: Schermerhorn – Chapter 4 7 If we are to comply with JCAHO standards, how important is it to understand the differing worldviews on which our patients base their values and spiritual beliefs as well as knowing our own? Five Questions about WV : Schermerhorn – Chapter 4 8 Five Questions about WV 1. What is ultimately the prime reality? (†¦ such as â€Å"God†, or Matter/Energy) 2. What is the basic nature of the universe? 3. What is the basic nature and condition of man? 4. What happens to man at death? 5. What is the reason or basis of ethics and morality? Conflicting world views? : Schermerhorn – Chapter 4 9 Conflicting world views? â€Å"I am aware that no one†¦. is neutral on such emotionally charged issues. None of us can tolerate the notion that our worldview may be based on a false premise and, thus, our whole life headed in the wrong direction. Dr. Armand M. Nicholi Jr. Slide 10: Schermerhorn – Chapter 4 10 â€Å"Most of us make one of two basic assumptions: we view the universe as a result of random events and life in this planet is a matter of chance; Or we assume an Intelligence beyond the universe who gives the universe order, and life meaning. † Dr. Armand M. Nicholi Jr. The basis for an approach to ethics : Schermerhorn â€⠀œ Chapter 4 11 The basis for an approach to ethics Worldview establishes the foundation that individuals rely on to form their approach to ethics. There are two fundamental worldviews from which ethics and values manifest in behavior and decision-making: A belief that humans are created beings accountable to a creator. A belief that humans evolved from the result of a chance event. Alternative Views of Ethical Behavior : Schermerhorn – Chapter 4 12 Alternative Views of Ethical Behavior Utilitarian – greatest good to the greatest number of people Individualism – primary commitment is to one’s long tem self-interests Moral-rights – respect the fundamental rights of people Justice – ethical decisions treat people fairly according to rules Cultural Issues in Ethical Behavior : Schermerhorn – Chapter 4 13 Cultural Issues in Ethical Behavior Cultural Relativism ethical behavior is always determined by cultural context Cultural Issues in Ethical Behavior : Schermerhorn – Chapter 4 14 Cultural Issues in Ethical Behavior Ethical Imperialism attempt to externally impose one’s ethical standards on others Ethics in the Workplace : Schermerhorn – Chapter 4 15 Ethics in the Workplace What is an Ethical Dilemma? Situation that requires choosing a course of action offers potential for personal and/or organizational benefit may be considered unethical Examples of Ethical Dilemmas : Schermerhorn – Chapter 4 16 Examples of Ethical Dilemmas Should I support my bosses incorrect views? Should I sign a false document? Should I accept a gift from a client? Should I give special treatment to a friend or boss’ friend? Ethics in the Workplace : Schermerhorn – Chapter 4 17 Ethics in the Workplace Rationalizations for Unethical Behavior Convincing oneself that: behavior is not really illegal behavior is really in everyone’s best interests nobody will ever find out the organization will â€Å"protect† you Preventing Rationalization for Unethical Behavior : Schermerhorn – Chapter 4 18 Preventing Rationalization for Unethical Behavior Question 1 â€Å"How will I feel about this if my family finds out? † Question 2 â€Å"How will I feel about this if it is printed in the local newspaper? † Ethics in the Workplace : Schermerhorn – Chapter 4 19 Ethics in the Workplace Factors Influencing Ethical Behavior Person Organization Environment Factors Affecting Ethical Behavior : Schermerhorn – Chapter 4 20 Factors Affecting Ethical Behavior Person family influences religious values personal standards and needs Factors Affecting Ethical Behavior : Schermerhorn – Chapter 4 21 Factors Affecting Ethical Behavior Organization policies, codes of conduct behavior of supervisors, peers organizational culture Factors Affecting Ethical Behavior : Schermerhorn – Chapter 4 22 Factors Affecting Ethical Behavior External Environment government regulations norms and values of society ethical climate of industry Maintaining High Ethical Standards : Schermerhorn – Chapter 4 23 Maintaining High Ethical Standards Ethics Training structured programs that help participants to understand ethical aspects of decision making Slide 24: Schermerhorn – Chapter 4 24 Where do pressures for unethical acts come from? BOSSES LOWER LEVELS Sometimes, perhaps too often Bosses may ask: â€Å"support an incorrect view† â€Å"sign a false document† â€Å"overlook a wrong doing† â€Å"do business with my friends† Who hold a lot of power Who depend on them for raises, promotions, etc. Maintaining High Ethical Standards : Schermerhorn – Chapter 4 25 Maintaining High Ethical Standards Whistleblower Protection Whistleblowers expose misdeeds of others to preserve ethical standards protect against wasteful, harmful, illegal acts Maintaining High Ethical Standards : Schermerhorn – Chapter 4 26 Maintaining High Ethical Standards Whistleblower Protection Barriers to whistleblowing strict chain of command strong work group identities ambiguous priorities State laws protecting whistleblowers vary Federal laws protect government workers Maintaining High Ethical Standards : Schermerhorn – Chapter 4 27 Maintaining High Ethical Standards Top management support model appropriate ethical behavior Formal codes of ethics official written guidelines on how to behave Corporate Social Responsibility : Schermerhorn – Chapter 4 28 Corporate Social Responsibility Obligation of the organization to act in ways that serve both its own interests and that of stakeholders Social Responsibility in Action : Schermerhorn – Chapter 4 29 Social Responsibility in Action Social Audits Evaluate corporate social performance by asking Is the organization’s Economic responsibility met? Legal responsibility met? Ethical responsibility met? Discretionary responsibility met? Social Responsibility and the Legal Environment : Schermerhorn – Chapter 4 30 Social Responsibility and the Legal Environment Governmental agencies that monitor compliance with government mandates Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Occupational Safety Health Administration (OSHA) Food Drug Administration (FDA) Complex Legal Environment : Schermerhorn – Chapter 4 31 Complex Legal Environment Areas of government intervention occupational safety and health fair labor practices consumer protection environmental protection How to cite Social Responsibility, Papers Social Responsibility Free Essays Sole proprietorship This business is an individual owned organization. This business is the most attractive because of its simplicity and control over the business. * Liability-. We will write a custom essay sample on Social Responsibility or any similar topic only for you Order Now This business has unlimited liability. The owner is responsible for everything. If the business begins to fail personal assets and business assets can be sought after to pay off debts. There is no distinction between the two assets. * Income taxes- Business owners in a sole proprietorship file a 1040 as well as a schedule C (â€Å"profit or loss from a business or profession†). The Proprietor’s personal income is supplemented by all profits of his business. This form of taxation is known as pass-through taxation, meaning there is no separate federal income tax reporting for the proprietorship. * Longevity/continuity: In the event the sole proprietor dies and planned steps were not properly carried out the business will cease. Sadly the family’s source of income is no longer available. Life insurance is an important need to the proprietor, it may be the family’s only source of income. Secondly a will is a must have with precise details on to whom and how the business should be carries out. It’s also important to pre-plan with his chosen representative, teaching them how the business is managed. Control: The sole Proprietor may choose to directly run his business or hire others to manage for him. Being in total control of the business the proprietor is solely responsible for the major functions of his business. Leaving him with the responsibility of guiding his business down the path of success. * Profit retention: Al l profits belong to the owner. There is sole gain, no partners or stockholders to share proceeds with. * Location: One of the best things about a sole proprietorship is there are no limitations on the business. If the owner wishes he can expand, down size, move locations, or sell his business at will. Convenience/Burden: A sole proprietorship has the convenience of absolute freedom of action. A downfall to the Proprietor is the responsibility of running a business that â€Å"pays the bills†. In the event he were to die become ill or injured the business could no longer run. General Partnership This form of business consists of two or more partners. The partners are the founders of the organization. * Liability: Being co- owners, the partners have equal rights to the possession of the partnership assets. They can’t sell, assign, or transfer their individual shares of the ownership. Each partner is unlimited liable for the firms obligations. Partners are responsible for the debts. Any debt not covered could be made up from personal assets. Partners are responsible for one another. * Income taxes: There is no federal income tax imposed on the partnership. Individuals must file an informational tax return. Each partner must include his share of the profits. Partners can take advantage of the partnerships losses to offset their personal income. * Longevity/Continuity: If a partner were to die, sell, or retire his or her part of the partnership would be dissolved. Exception would be the â€Å"buy sell† agreement. Meaning the surviving partner must buy the deceased partners’ interest from the heirs. Personal ownership dies but the deceased interest possess to the decedent’s personal representative. * Control: Each partner has equal authority. In partnerships with more than two members the majority will rule. Each partner becomes an agent of the other. A partner may not assign or sell partnership property, admit another to the firm without the consent of all associates, or sell their interest to another without consent of the partners. Profit: All profits and losses are distributed evenly throughout the partnership. * Location: The rules and regulations vary from state to state . General partnership should use Schedule R to apportion income between the states. * Convenience/Burden: The main advantage of this form of buisness is low volume of paperwork needed for registration and its cheapness. Limited Partnership This busine ss has two or more partners much like the general partners. There is a few key differences though. * Liability: There is a partner that carries full liability and the others are limited liability. Income Tax: Income taxes are paid after the partners have received their share. There is four characteristics that would make a limited partnership have to pay corporate taxation. They only need two of the four to qualify. * Longevity/Continuity: In the case of a death the partnership would most likely end. * Control: The general partner would control the daily business for the partnership and the limited partners just have control over the investments. * Profit Retention: All profits are distributed evenly through the partnership. * Location: Partners should pay taxes according to the amount made in each state. Convenience/Burden: The ability to have funds from the limited partners and not having control. On a negative side there would be a risk if a partner dies or leaves the partnership . C-Corporation This corporation is also known as the regular organization. They have an unlimited amount of stockholders, allowing both residents and non-residents in. * Liability: Owners are limited to the amount of his or her investment. All personal assets are safe. * Income taxation: The C- Corporation is taxed as a corporation. Net income is paid to shareholders for dividends. They also pay personal income tax, thus meaning they are double taxed. Longevity/Continuity: The life period is unlimited, as long as they have the money to back up the debts they will not be affected by the death of a stockholder. * Control: Shareholders do not directly manage the business they elect the board of members that will manage the business. * Profit Retention: Profit can be used in two ways. One it can be invested in the business or can be paid out in dividends to shareholders. * Location: Corporate taxes are equal in all states. * Convenience/Burden: The ability to raise money for funds is a n advantage. It also benefits from the ability to continue if a shareholder leaves the business. And obviously the double taxation is a big negative. S-Corporation This corporation has all the advantages of the previous businesses but also has its own disadvantages. * Liability: Shareholders liability is limited to the amount of investment. * Taxation: Company doesn’t get taxed itself, only shareholders pay taxes. * Longevity/Continuity: Company is unlimited same as an S-Corporation. The shareholders will not affect the organization. * Control: The company is ran by the board of directors. Stockholders have corporate meetings. * Profit Retention: Same as the C-Corporations, pass through tax. Location: Must be domestic in any state. * Convenience/Burden: Business that are starting up usually pick this type of business because of the losses endured. There is a lot of paper work and the meetings are very inconvenient. Liability Limited Company Each member owns his or hers amount of shares according to their contributions. * Liability: An LLC functions much like a corporation . It’s members are unlimited liable. * Taxation: An LLC has a pass through taxation and only the shareholders are taxed individually. * Continuity/Longevity: There is a 50% rule in a LLC . If a member owning more than 50% of the business leaves or dies the LLC will end. But if a member owning less than 50% of the business the business will continue. * Control: There is two types , member –managed and managed – managed . * Profit Retention: Profits are distributed among members according to their stake. * Location: Most states allow an LLC . Different paperwork is required in different states. * Convenience: A LLC may federally be classified as a sole-proprietorship, partnership, or corporation for tax purposes. Classification can be selected or a default may apply. How to cite Social Responsibility, Papers

Better No Eyes Than Four Eyes free essay sample

There are many similarities between Sophocles’ Oedipus Rex and Shakespeare’s King Lear; the most popular being the theme of literal and figurative blindness. Within the two plays, those who blind themselves through their own faults see less than those who are born without sight. Those who cannot see the tangible world often have more insight as to what is happening to those around them. Blindness is perhaps the most prominent theme in King Lear. The first character to show figurative blindness is none other than Lear himself. In the opening of Act One, Lear approaches his daughters, â€Å"Which of you shall we say doth love us most, that we our largest bounty may extend,† (1.1.53). He essentially tells them that whoever loves him the most will receive the most land from him. Lear, who often lacks insight, is completely blind to the fact that his eldest two daughters are only saying what he wants to hear and do not actually love him nearly as much as they profess. We will write a custom essay sample on Better No Eyes Than Four Eyes or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page . Lear is unable to see the true motives of his daughters and only sees what is on the surface. When it is his youngest and most prized daughter, Cordelia’s turn to speak she says, â€Å"Nothing, my Lord† (1.1.89). Her response is nearly as affectionate as her sycophantic sisters and this disappoints Lear greatly and lashes out at her in anger and doesn’t grant her any land, â€Å"Nothing will come of nothing.† (1.1.92) he tells her. In this scene the only one who dares speak against Lear’s blindness is Kent, who uses his own insight to determine that Cordelia is only daughter worthy of any of Lear’s land. Gloucester is the second blindest character in the play. He has two sons that he has radically different relationships with. His relationship with his illegitimate son, Edmund, is not very good. Gloucester feels ashamed of having Edmund as a son and Edmund cannot receive any inheritance from Gloucester due to his illegitimacy and will los e all of it to his half brother, Edgar. Jealous of his brother’s good relationship with their father, Edmund tricks Gloucester into believing that Edgar has plans to overthrow his father and take all his money from him. Gloucester is easily convinced when Edmund shows him a letter that is supposedly from Edgar, showing that Edgar is plotting against his father. Unable to see his sons true characters and therefore is blind to the fact that Edgar is his good son and would never plot against him. When Gloucester loses his actual sight, he then grows true insight; which reinforces the idea that those who are physically blind see more than those who are figuratively blind. Gloucester recognizes the change in the way he sees things when he says, â€Å"I have no way and therefore want no eyes; I stumbled when I saw. Full oft tis seen, Our means secure us, and our mere defects Prove our commodities (4.1.18-21).† By saying this he acknowledges that he couldn’t see when h e had eyes and now he has lost his sight, he sees more clearly. By the end of the story, Gloucester gains insight, but Lear is still blinded. It should also be noted that one of the great ironies of the play is that the character with the most insight and wisdom is the Fool, while the blindest character is the king. Oedipus Rex was also a king so blinded by pride, politics and denial that he cannot see what was truly going on. In Oedipus Rex, the prophet Tiresias is blind. Oedipus fears that something is causing the tribulations in his nation, so he goes to Tiresias for guidance. Tiresias knows that Oedipus has fulfilled his prophecy and has slain his father and married his mother. He alludes that this is the case and Oedipus, blinded by pride, refuses to believe him. Throughout the play Oedipus is blind to very obvious signs that he has, in fact, fulfilled his prophecy. One of the most noticeable instances is when Jocasta tells him of her only son that she had to leave in the woods to die because the exact same prophecy had been made about him and yet he still doesn’t make the connection. Later when it is revealed that Oedipus was truly Jocasta’s son, Jocasta commits suicide. Upon witnessing this, Oedipus blinds himself with a pin from her dress. â€Å"What was there left for sight? What, that could give delight? Or whose address, O Friends, could I still hear with happiness?† (49). Oedipus feels as though he were not worthy of sight after the horrendous acts he committed. He didn’t feel he could bear to face those who knew what he had done. â€Å"†¦do you think that children were a sight Delectable for me to gaze at, born As they were born? Never with eyes of mine!† (51). Oedipus and Jocasta’s incestuous relationship produced four children, two sons and two daughters. Sophocles’ third play revolves around Oedipus’ children, mainly his daughter, Antigone. The theme of blindness isn’t has stro ng throughout Antigone as it was with Oedipus Rex. Antigone is blinded by her strong sense of morality and ends up losing her life because of it.

Friday, May 1, 2020

The Target Market

Question: Task 1 You choose a business idea, undertake some research then write a report including an explanation of how to identify the target market, which will be informed by the business idea and the criteria used to define it Task 2 You must show awareness of your skills and development opportunities, required to start a business and be aware of what the additional requirements would be needed. You must produce a proposal which describes the legal and financial aspects that will affect the start-up of the business. You may need to consult with specialists and should address aspects such as the legal status of the business, the form of trading it will undertake, together with specific relevant legal and financial issues. You should presume that your idea can become reality and should consider these areas accordingly. Task 3 The outline business plan should follow a formal report format and can be developed into a comprehensive document. This should reflect legal aspects relating to the start up of a new business, but monetary aspects will need to involve some simulation. The report should be supported by an oral discussion, which may be undertaken with a specialist such as a bank manager. Answer: Task 1: Business Idea and Target Market Explanation of initial business idea: To start a new business, the business entrepreneur requires some innovative ideas as well as strategies to attract the customers extensively (Harmon, 2015). The business that needs to be started focuses towards the unique selling point of the organization to attract the customers extensively. The name of the organization that is planning to be opened and inaugurated is "Cottage Fresh Dairy Products". The location of the business will be started in Beckenham that has excellent transport systems consisting of buses, rail as well as tram roads. The unique selling point of the organization is selling low fat and no usage of artificial sweetener in the dairy products of the organization. The organization sells the products that help in consultation of the legal as well as financial issues that help in starting the business requirements extensively. From the outlook and opinion of Sadgrove (2015), the relevant business issues also consider the idea of targeting the market in which the busi ness will be flourished. The business also needs to take into account segmentation of the customers and then understand the need and wants of the customers that are followed by targeting the customers. This organization targets the customers that take into account the children, youngsters, office going people as well as aged people. The organization also takes into account the calorie check as well as health benefits of the products to the customers. According to the outlook and opinion of Kanter (2015), the prices of the product need to be low since the customers need to have excellent products at low price. The customers are a sweet tooth in nature and at the same time also health conscious. So, to attract the customers, the organization needs to produce the dairy products so that it gives the taste of sweetness to the customers and at the same time the health values attached to it. As opined by Strumickas and Valanciene (2015) the products also need to be attractive in nature look wise along with taste wise. It is necessary for the customers to have products sugar free, and the ingredients also need to have excellent healthy ingredients so that it reduces the sugar level as well as keep the sugar level maintained. Moreover, the distribution system of the organization also needs to be excellent. From the outlook of Rosemann and vom Brocke (2015), the distribution system needs to effective so that the raw materials and daily raw materials reach the organization in time. It also looks after the freshness of the products as well as maintains the level of hygiene while preparing it. Other than this the legal and financial aspects also need to be considered to the maximum extent to have excellent business strategy within the organization. The laws, norms, rules, as well as regulations, are maintained to the maximum extent that helps in fair trading and return it helps in attracting the customers extensively. Therefore the organization also focuses towards the customers that focus that maintenance of the laws and rules. Explanation for identification of target market: According to the outlook and point of view of Slack (2015), the target group of the new business are targeted towards the health conscious people, obese people and the diabetic patients. In today's health consciousness among people's mentality people tend to have excellent quality of food at nominal prices. The low fat and sugar content of the food automatically attracts the customers to the maximum extent. Moreover, the organization has mainly focused on the customers those are suffering from obesity and diabetic patients. According to the outlook of Burlton (2015), this is because the people are suffering from obesity as well as diabetes that are caused due to heavy work pressures, bad eating habits, and bad lifestyle. Other than this the organization also targets the customers that help in attracting the customers extensively. Moreover the customers also focus towards the proper identification of the target market. On the other hand, the children also can be targeted since children love sweets and dairy products. From the opinion of Jackson et al. (2015) due to this it causes tooth decay, bad smell as well as decomposition in tooth due to a presence of excess sugar in the dairy products. So, to prevent the tooth decay as well as provides them with the Some taste of having sweets, the organization don't prefer using any artificial, sweetener, flavor as well as ingredients. As a result having the excellent quantity of dairy products at low price and maintenance of the same taste is the main attraction of this dairy shop (Hatten, 2015). Task 2: Required Skills AC 2.1/P3: Skills for running the business successfully for requirement of further personal development Van Auken (2015) commented on the essential fact that the skills for running the business successfully focuses towards the management as well as an operation of the business successfully. The leadership skills need to be transformational leadership that helps in guiding the employees through motivation as well as inspiration. The goals and objectives are set up, and the employees need to work to meet up the goals and objectives. According to the point of view of Kanter (2015), the leaders focus towards the motivating the team in meeting the overall aims as well as objectives of the organization. While making decisions, the leaders need to take into account the strong decisions that should not procrastinate at any cost or due to any lame excuses for leading the organization in the correct direction. In addition to this from the opinion of Chang et al. (2015) the other skills that the organization requires for the business operation that help in building strategies for excellent business operation in the organization. The strategies are having excellent supply chain management to have the excellent supply of raw materials to the organization in time. Moreover, the strategies that are also made need to understand the strengths and weakness of the organization along with their opportunities and threats. The longer terms and goals are also reviewed that help in increasing the profits to the maximum extent periodically. From the outlook and viewpoint of Gaskill et al. (2015) the strategies that the organization needs to adopt help in understanding the customer needs and requirements are discussed. Therefore, they are kept into account to provide them flawless services in time. The focus of the organization in providing the customer with excellent product and services is one of the ma jor strategies and skills the business owner needs to make while operating its business. Other than this the marketing skills, as well as communication skills, also need to be excellent for the organizational growth and success. As commented by Harmon (2015) the excellent communication as well as marketing skills is necessary to communicate well with the customers. The better the communication will be the more the employees will understand the job profile properly and hence the work will be better. A good marketing attracts the customers extensively since the information regarding the unique selling point of the organization is transmitted easily to the target group. As a result from the outlook of Burlton (2015) the increase in customer database along with profits as well as revenues also get increased considerably. The sales persons will be excellent in the improvement of the sales through excellent response. Excellent advertisements of the organization along with its products and strength need to be advertised to attract the customers. Legal and Financial proposal Sadgrove (2015) commented on the essential fact that the legal, as well as financial issues, need to keep in mind while conducting fair business. Cottage Fresh Dairy Products also focuses towards having legal and financial aspects such as undertaking the whole business in hand. Moreover the organization to start up needs cash and money that is necessary for conducting the whole business. As a result, the organization has to visit the bank that gives loans to those organizations those are new and start-up companies. For receiving the loans from the banks, the organization needs to show the bank about the whole business planning. Rosemann and vom Brocke (2015) commented on the essential fact that the financial is one of the most important aspects of the business to have resources both human as well as raw materials. The financial aspects need to be clear and totally legal with the banks and therefore also need to be abided by all the rules and regulations. In addition to this according to the outlook and opinion of Gaskill et al. (2015) the organization needs specifications in their legal approaches. It is one of the most important parts for the sustainability as well as increasing popularity of the organization. The health and safety issues of the employees also need to be taken care of for retaining the employees extensively. Other than this the organization also focuses towards the maintenance of employee laws and regulations that help in satisfying the employees and attracting them to the organization. As opined by Jackson et al. (2015) the laws also focuses towards the maintenance of employee needs and requirements and hence also focuses towards the clean business operation. The compensations and benefits also need to be given to the employees for retaining them. Task 3: Business Plan The business plan that will be highlighting the business proposal is shown below- Attributes Description Time Raw materials This is an organization dealing with dairy products, so fresh ingredients are essential in its supply (Kanter, 2015). For providing excellent dairy products to the customers, the employees will be focusing towards the raw materials input to provide the customers with the best quality as well as excellent dairy products. The organization is targeting towards the customers those varying from children to aged people (Sadgrove, 2015). So, special care needs to be taken to maintain the entire production that concerned with the dairy products. 1-2 months Human Resources The people specialized in human resource need to be employed within the organization (Slack, 2015). It is because the employees need to be organized in the most innovative way so that they retain the best within the organization as well as provide the customers with authenticating dairy food items. It not only attracts the customers extensively but also increases the reputation of the new organization to the maximum extent (Burlton, 2015). Other than this, it also helps in maintaining a good health issue that the organization promises to the customers. The HR department takes a full care of monitoring and maintenance of the entire workflow within the organization. 1 month Financial Resources Another important task that the organization takes into account is the financial resources (Jackson et al. 2015). The financial resources take into account the loan that is will be from the loan providers that is the bank to start up the business. Financial stability being one of the most important aspects of any start-up business, so monetary requirements is essential for buying of raw materials (Harmon, 2015). Moreover, this is also required for paying up the salary of the employees extensively to retain them to the maximum extent. 3-4 months Legal Laws For the accomplishment of the operation of the business in the most successful way, the organization needs to have legal laws (Rosemann and vom Brocke, 2015). It, therefore, helps in operating the business legally. Moreover, the organization also need to take the legal laws, the labor laws, labor wage, and human resource laws that are taken care of urgently (Strumickas and Valanciene, 2015). The organization needs to follow the legal issues as well as laws and regulation for running the business successfully within the organization. 3 months Clear mission and vision The organization needs to have clear mission and vision that will help it in progressing in its operation (Jackson et al. 2015). The organization had the clear mission as well as vision helps in retaining the employees as well as providing the customers with the best quality dairy products. 1 month References Hatten, T. S. (2015).Small business management: Entrepreneurship and beyond. Cengage Learning. Kanter, R. M. (2015). From spare change to real change: The social sector as beta site for business innovation.Havard Business Review. Van Auken, H. E. (2015). The business launch decision: An empirical investigation of reasons for not starting a new business.Journal of Small Business Strategy,10(2), 43-55. Harmon, P. (2015). The scope and evolution of business process management. InHandbook on Business Process Management 1(pp. 37-80). Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Rosemann, M., and vom Brocke, J. (2015). The six core elements of business process management. InHandbook on Business Process Management 1(pp. 105-122). Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Sadgrove, M. K. (2015).The complete guide to business risk management. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.. Strumickas, M., and Valanciene, L. (2015). Research of management accounting changes in Lithuanian business organizations.Engineering Economics,63(4). Gaskill, L. R., Van Auken, H. E., and Kim, H. S. (2015). Impact of operational planning on small business retail performance.Journal of Small Business Strategy,5(1), 21-36. Slack, N. (2015).Operations strategy. John Wiley and Sons, Ltd. Chang, T. Z., Chen, S. J., and Chiou, J. S. (2015). Management Leadership Behavior and Market Orientation: The Relationship and Their Effects on Organization Effectiveness and Business Performance. InMarketing, Technology and Customer Commitment in the New Economy(pp. 276-281). Springer International Publishing. Burlton, R. T. (2015). Delivering business strategy through process management. InHandbook on Business Process Management 2(pp. 45-78). Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Jackson, W. T., Vozikis, G. S., and Babakus, E. (2015). SBI intervention: An old problem-a new perspective.Journal of Small Business Strategy,3(2), 15-30.